A Virtual Server is ideally suited to running a dedicated install of Tomcat for hosting J2EE-based applications. Here's how to set it up with Whitebox Enterprise Linux (a free rebuild of RedHat Enterprise Linux without any of the support or cost).
Buying the server
Decide how much memory you'll need; you can run in 128MB, but depending on the application complexity you would be well advised to buy 256MB or 512MB. If you guess too small, your memory quota can easily be expanded. Fill in our application form and we'll get you set up with a Virtual Server.
For my example here, I'm using womble.vs.mythic-beasts.com, a 64MB virtual server.
Installing Java and Tomcat
Depending on which kernel your Virtual Server is running, it may be necessary to disable the thread-local storage features of the system C library, since User-Mode Linux presently doesn't support this and until recently UML kernels could crash if the thread-local storage versions were used. Check with support for more details, but for safety it's easiest just to disable the TLS libraries:
# mv /lib/tls /lib/tls.bak
(This, and other setup commands, should be run as root logged into your
Virtual Server. "
#" is the root prompt, and anything in
font is a command to type.)
Firstly you'll need to download both a Java SDK and the version of Tomcat you'd like to use.
Java 1.4.2 and Tomcat 5.0
This is the latest stable release of Java and Tomcat recommended for production use. To download Java you have to agree to the license agreement at, http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/download.html; click the download link and agree to the license agreement. Choose the Linux platform SDK, and copy the link location for the self extracting file. On your virtual server download this link:
# wget -O j2sdk-linux.bin http://18.104.22.168/ECom/EComTicketServlet/BEGINjsecom15a.sun.com-aa96%3A4144504d%3Aacd93f6445e5437/-2147483648/515342331/1/489890/489698/515342331/2ts+/westCoastFSEND/j2sdk-1.4.2_05-oth-JPR/j2sdk-1.4.2_05-oth-JPR:4/j2sdk-1_4_2_05-linux-i586.bin
Similarly download Tomcat 5.0.whatever; here I've used 5.0.28:
# wget -O tomcat5.0.28.tar.gz http://ftp.plig.net/pub/apache/dist/jakarta/tomcat-5/v5.0.28/bin/jakarta-tomcat-5.0.28.tar.gz
We should now have two files: a Java SDK installer, and a Tomcat archive:
# ls -l total 46084 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 815 May 5 21:54 anaconda-ks.cfg -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 19390 May 5 21:54 install.log -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3238 May 5 21:46 install.log.syslog -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 36384457 Jun 9 21:06 j2sdk-linux.bin -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10718313 Aug 29 04:13 tomcat5.0.28.tar.gz
The next stage is to install Java. We need to make it executable, run the
binary and let it unzip the archive for us. Then we move it into
# chmod +x j2sdk-linux.bin # ./j2sdk-linux.bin Sun Microsystems, Inc. Binary Code License Agreement for the JAVATM 2 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT KIT (J2SDK), STANDARD EDITION, VERSION 1.4.2_X
... lots of licensing waffle ...
For inquiries please contact: Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara, California 95054, U.S.A. (LFI#140023/Form ID#011801) Do you agree to the above license terms? [yes or no] yes Unpacking... Checksumming...
... big list of files it's just unzipped ...
Creating j2sdk1.4.2_05/jre/lib/jsse.jar Creating j2sdk1.4.2_05/jre/lib/charsets.jar Creating j2sdk1.4.2_05/jre/lib/ext/localedata.jar Creating j2sdk1.4.2_05/jre/lib/plugin.jar Creating j2sdk1.4.2_05/jre/javaws/javaws.jar Done. # mv j2sdk1.4.2_05 /usr/local/java
Now we add Java to the system path, for all users:
# cat >> /etc/profile PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/java/bin export PATH JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/java export JAVA_HOME JDK_HOME=/usr/local/java export JDK_HOME
Type Ctrl-D ("
^D") to finish the above.
Now, if we log out and in again, Java should Just Work:
# java -version java version "1.4.2_05" Java(TM) 2 Runtime Environment, Standard Edition (build 1.4.2_05-b04) Java HotSpot(TM) Client VM (build 1.4.2_05-b04, mixed mode)
Tomcat is a little easier to install. We extract the archive and move the
resulting directory to
# tar -zxf tomcat5.0.28.tar.gz # mv jakarta-tomcat-5.0.28 /usr/local/tomcat
Now we can start up Tomcat and make sure everything is running:
# /usr/local/tomcat/bin/startup.sh Using CATALINA_BASE: /usr/local/tomcat Using CATALINA_HOME: /usr/local/tomcat Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/local/tomcat/temp Using JAVA_HOME: /usr/local/java # links http://localhost:8080
Links is a text-mode web browser which is useful for quickly checking on pages while logged in to your Virtual Server. Here it should show something like this:
Apache Tomcat/5.0.28 The Mighty Tomcat - MEOW! Apache Tomcat/5.0.28 The Jakarta Project ........................ If you're seeing this page via a web .Administration . browser, it means you've setup Tomcat ........................ successfully. Congratulations! .Status . .Tomcat Administration . As you may have guessed by now, this is the .Tomcat Manager . default Tomcat home page. It can be found . . on the local filesystem at: ........................
Type Ctrl-C or "q" to exit Links.
Setting up for Production.
Whilst Tomcat is running, the default firewall on the machine is blocking
connections to it, so it's not externally visible. Tomcat is also running as
root so if it's compromised, the whole machine will be open to the attacker.
We now have to build
jscv, the Java Service Daemon, to run it.
This also creates a startup script to install Tomcat as a daemon; however we
ignore it, because it's aimed at Tomcat 4 and won't work with this version.
# cd /usr/local/tomcat/bin/ # tar -zxf jsvc.tar.gz # cd jsvc-src/ # autoconf # chmod +x configure # ./configure *** Current host ***
... compilation stuff ...
*** All done ***
Now you can run "make" and build the daemon:
# make make -C native all
... building stuff ...
make: Leaving directory `/usr/local/tomcat/bin/jsvc-src/native' # cp jsvc .. # cd ..
Now we can tell Tomcat to start up as a different user bound on port 80. We
/usr/local/tomcat/conf/server.xml and change the port to 80.
Using a text editor (try
pico unless you already have a
<Connector port="8080" maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75" enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" acceptCount="100" debug="0" connectionTimeout="20000" disableUploadTimeout="true" />
<Connnector port="80" maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75" enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" acceptCount="100" debug="0" connectionTimeout="20000" disableUploadTimeout="true" />
Now we can start Tomcat running as the unprivileged apache user on port 80, so it works just like a normal web server. We also want to install Tomcat as a system service so it starts on machine boot. I'm not going to explain how to modify the file supplied by Tomcat to make it work; just download mine which has had the paths fixed for this install, and chkconfig info added. We also need to grant the apache user rights to all the Tomcat files. So:
# wget -O /etc/init.d/tomcat https://static.mythic-beasts.com/support/topics/vds_java/tomcat-initscript.sh # chmod +x /etc/init.d/tomcat # chkconfig --add tomcat # chkconfig --level 345 tomcat on # chown -R apache:apache /usr/local/tomcat # chown -R root:root /usr/local/tomcat/bin # chown -R root:root /usr/local/tomcat/common # /etc/init.d/tomcat start
Tomcat is now up and running on port 80, and visible to the world (the default firewall does not block port 80).
Now we should secure our Tomcat and linux installation from the world. Remove all the web-apps we're not using:
# rm -rf balancer/ jsp-examples/ servlets-examples/ tomcat-docs/ webdav/
To secure the Whitebox Enterprise Linux install, we set up yum to point at the esat mirror. Just copy my configuration:
# wget -O /etc/yum.conf https://static.mythic-beasts.com/support/topics/vds_java/yum.conf
You'll also need to make sure that
/mirror, the directory
containing mirrored Linux distributions, is mounted in your Virtual Server. This should
be set up by our installer, but if it is not, create the mountpoint directory
# mkdir /mirror
/etc/fstab the line,
/mirror /mirror hostfs ro 0 0
and mount the mirrors with,
# mount /mirror
To fully patch the machine, run yum and tell it to answer yes to all questions:
# yum -y update Gathering header information file(s) from server(s) Server: White Box Enterprise Linux 3.0 - i386 - Base Server: White Box Enterprise Linux 3.0 - i386 - Released Updates Finding updated packages Downloading needed headers
... lots of downloading activity ...
... a long wait as there are many packages to do ...
Dependencies resolved I will do the following:
... big list of packages ...
... wait while it downloads packages ...
Running test transaction: Test transaction complete, Success!
... installing packages ...
We tell the machine to email us its messages. Edit
# Person who should get root's mail root: firstname.lastname@example.org
Scripting the updates
We then script the patching of the machine because we don't want to be hacked into. This isn't necessary and carries a small risk of the machine becoming unavailable due to a poor update, but helps to protect against becoming unavailable due to being hacked into by a script kiddie.
# cat > /etc/cron.daily/update #!/bin/bash yum -y update mv /lib/tls /lib/tls-`date -I` ^D # chmod 755 /etc/cron.daily/update
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